Third Semester

FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY

Course Objective
To comprehend the structure and organization of biomolecules and to study the basic principles of biochemical processes that take place in living organisms as well as the biochemical transformations in food.

Content Summary
The subject of Biochemistry and its relation to Food Technology. The importance of water in biological systems. Introduction to cell structure and chemistry. Structure, properties, and biological function of biological molecules and macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleotides and nucleic acids). Enzymes. Biochemical action of vitamins and hormones. Constituents, structure and function of biological membranes. Digestion, basic principles of metabolism, bioenergetics and oxidative phosphorylation. Study of the metabolism of food nutrients.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Amino acid determination: Ninhydrin reaction, free amino acids via Sorensen titration and UV absorption.
2. Protein determination: Diurea reaction and Folin and UV absorption.
3. Enzymes: Effects of enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH, temperature, incubation time and presence of inhibitor.
4. Carbohydrates: Study of glycogen structure.
5. Laboratory techniques in biochemistry: Molecular filtration chromatography and TLC, gas chromatography, electrophoresis of amino acids and macromolecules.
6. Lipids: Effect of fat composition on the permeability of lipid single-layer and the study of the permeability of liposomes.

Suggested Reading
Berg, J. M., J. L.Tymoczko, and L. Stryer. 2012. Biochemistry.
Kaloyannis, S. 2012. Introduction to Biochemistry.
Vafopoulou-Mastroyannaki A. 2003. Food Biochemistry.

ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION OF FOOD ENTERPRISES

Course Objective
To enable students to comprehend the basic economic principles, the methods of organization and administration of food enterprises and the process of entrepreneurial decision making.

Content Summary
Introduction to the concept of enterprise. Kinds of enterprises. Enterprise and the environment. The functions of enterprises. Organizational schemes for administration. Administration of personnel. Techniques of effective administration. Administration of production. The action plan of the enterprise. Economic analysis, cost-benefit analysis, economic evaluation and effectiveness of a processing unit. Evaluation of investments.

Suggested Reading
In Greek:
Kammenidis, H. 2004. Agricultural Marketing. Private publication, Thessaloniki.
Kitsopanidis, G., and H. Kammenidis. 1997. Agricultual Economics. Zitis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Semos, A. 2004. Processing of Agricultural Products – Economic Organization – Food Production. Zitis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Tzortzakakis, K., and A. M. Tzortzakaki. 2007. Organization and Administration of Enterprises. Rosili Publications.
In English:
Dessler, G. 1998. Management. Prentice-Hall, London.
Likert, R. 1990. The Human Organization: Its Management and Value. Mc Graw-Hill.

FOOD ANALYSIS

Course Objective
Students will study the composition of food in order to comprehend the quality, nutritional value and transformations of food, as well as knowledge of the relevant legislation.

Content Summary
Introduction to food analysis. Separation methods: Filtration, evaporation, crystallization, centrifugation. Distillation. Boiling point and melting point. Gravimetric determinations. Extraction. pH-metry, titration. Reflectometry. Spectrophotometry. Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, GC, HPLC). Characteristic reactions of food constituents.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Determination of water content – determination of ash.
2. Determination of physicochemical constants.
3. Determination of acidity.
4. Determination of fat.
5. Determination of sugars.
6. Determination of vitamins.
7. Determination of preservatives.
8. Determination of proteins.
9. Detection of impurities and spoilage.
10. Characteristic reactions of food constituents.

Suggested Reading
Andrikopoulos, K. N., 2010. Food Analysis.
Arvanitoyannis, I., T. Varzakas, and K. Tzifa. 2008. Food Quality Checking, Laboratory Guide.
Polychroniadou-Alihanidou, A. 1996. Food Analysis, Principles and Methods.


Morden, T. 1996. Principles of Management. Mc Graw-Hill.

FOOD PROCESSING I

Course Objective
To deepen the knowledge of Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology relative to food processing, so that graduates can handle challenges related to food processing.

Content Summary
Causes of food spoilage, food preservation, heating foods with electrical power, scalding, pasteurization – sterilization, canning, aseptic processing, thermal extrusion, cooking, chilling, freezing, condensation, dehydration, ionizing radiation, high hydrostatic pressures, non-thermal methods, fermentations, preservatives, technology of multiple obstacles.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Determination of the requisite thermal processing for commercial food sterilization.
2. The effect of food texture on the rate of heat penetration during sterilization.
3. The effect of net weight and vacuum space of a can on the rate of heat penetration during sterilization.
4. The effect of packaging material and size on the rate of heat penetration during sterilization.
5. Determination of time for chilling and freezing foods.
6. The effect of packaging material on freezing time.
7. Determination of heat yield of a microwave oven – Determination of specific heat of foods via microwave oven.
8. The study of baking foods in a microwave oven.

Suggested Reading
Bloukas, I. 2004. Processing and Preservation of Foods.
Lambropoulos, A., and S. Anestis. 2012. Food Processing.
Lazos, E. 2010. Food Processing. Vol. I.

POST-HARVEST FOOD PATHOGENS AND PESTS

Course Objective
Identification of attacks from animal pests and post-harvest pathogens, identification of pests and diseases in the warehouse, warehouse pathogen control.

Content Summary
1. The warehouse environment. Identification of the presence of attacks from animal pests and post-harvest pathogens.
2. Factors affecting attacks from animal pests and post-harvest pathogens of stored produce.
3. Control of animal pests and post-harvest pathogens in the warehouse.
4. Insecticidal and fungicidal substances, insect control, insecticide efficacy.
5. Organic and other methods of control.
6. Warehouse insects (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Dictyoptera, Thysanura, Psocoptera).
7. Mites. Allergies and other impacts from warehouse insects.
8. Elements of nutritional value of plant products and losses during storage of fresh produce.
9. Elements of physiology and quality of stored cereals and nuts. Storage of cereals and nuts: Storage conditions and degradation of quality and quantity.
10. Elements of physiology and quality of harvested fresh horticultural crops. Evaluation of quality of fresh horticultural crops.
11. Preservation of fresh horticultural crops, conditions and degradation of quality.
12. Elements of physiology and quality of harvested fresh horticultural crops.

Laboratory Exercises
1. The warehouse ecosystem: Biotic and abiotic factors that affect storage, degradation during storage due to animal pests, main categories of animal pests.
2. Insects of stored agricultural products and food: Coleoptera: Biology, ecology, and morphology. Common species of Coleoptera in stored agricultural products and food.
3. Insects of stored agricultural products and food: Lepidoptera and other arthropods: Biology, ecology, and morphology. Common species of the above taxa in stored agricultural products and food.
4. Control of insects of stored agricultural products and food – methods of mechanical, physical, biological, biotechnological and chemical control.
5. Other insect pests of stored products: Wood eating insects, biology, ecology, and control. Main species of wood eating insects.
6. Other pests of stored products and the urban environment – rodents and other vertebrates, Blattaria, Thusanura, Psocoptera.
7. Fungal and bacterial diseases of stored products and food.
8. Animal pests of public health importance in food and the urban environment (mites, myiatic insects, blood sucking species, vertebrates). The importance of the above pests for human health: Disease transmission, toxin transport, relationship with allergy development, etc.
9. Elements of nutritional value of plant products with emphasis in fruits and vegetables and nutrient loss during storage.
10. Elements of physiology and quality of stored cereals and nuts. The use of instruments to measure climatic parameters of warehouses and psychrometric maps.
11. Storage of cereals and nuts: Conditions of storage and degradation of quality and quantity. Visits to preservation areas of fresh fruit and/or storage of cereals.
12. Equipment for evaluating the quality of fresh horticultural produce and its use.
13. Preservation of fresh horticultural produce: Conditions and quality degradation. Modified or controlled atmosphere during preservation. Packaging. Initiation of test demonstrations of quality changes during preservation.
14. Transport of fresh horticultural produce. Final quality evaluation of test demonstrations. Visit to farmer’s market and checks of qualitative degradation of horticultural produce.

Suggested Reading
Barkai-Golan, R. (2001). Post-harvest diseases of fruits and vegetables. Elsevier Science and Technology, Amsterdam.
Vasilakakis, Μ., D. (2006). Post-harvest physiology horticultural produce treatment and technology. Gartaganis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Beattie, B., B. (1990). Postharvest diseases of horticultural produce. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
Narayanasamy, P. (2006). Postharvest pathogens and disease management. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., USA.
Rees, D. (2004). Insects of stored products. CSIRO Publishing, Australia.
Stamopoulos D., Κ. (2013). Pests of stored products, museums and homes. University Publications of Thessaly, Volos.
Tzamos, Ε., Κ. (2007). Plant pathology. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Tzanakakis, Μ., Ε. (1995). Entomology. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki.

SOIL MANAGEMENT AND FOOD PRODUCTION
Course type: Mixed
Hours per week: 2 hours lecture + 2 hours lab work
ECTU: 5
Semester: Fall semester (typically 3rd semester of studies)
Prerequisites: No
Course objective
The course aims to offer the basic knowledge on soil science. It focuses on the role of soil as natural resource and its relation to food production in the context of increasing food production needs of a growing world population with rising expectations of the standard of living. Particular emphasis is placed on management of the available soil resources to meet the future needs for food production.
Course content
Soil as a natural resource and its importance in food production. Assessment and management of soil fertility and its relationship to global food supply. Degradation-desertification - soil erosion - pollution of soil and water resources and methods for their amelioration. Salt affected soils, acid and alkaline soils and their management. Methods, tools and management strategies for sustainable soil use and food production.
Course Outline

Introduction - Functions of the soil ecosystem, soil as a natural resource, soil composition, soil formation, parent material, soil profile, soil horizons, soil classification.
Sustainable management of soil resources and food security: Farming systems - soil management and food security.
Physical, chemical and biological soil properties : Soil color, texture, structure, porosity, bulk density, aggregate stability, pH, buffering capacity, soluble salts - electrical conductivity, organic C, microbial C, microbial activity.
Soil colloids: their nature and practical importance for soil management in relation to food security. Ion exchange capacity and its importance for soil fertility.
Soil organic matter - the global carbon cycle and climate change, organic matter mineralization - humification. Management of soil organic matter.
Soil ecology: The diversity and abundance of soil organisms, microbial biomass and metabolic activity of soil organisms. Microorganism functions and sustainable soil management.
Soil water, water holding capacity, infiltration, permeability, plant available water, mechanisms for water supply to plants. Soil atmosphere-soil redox potential, wetland soils and their functions.
Soil nutrients and their management for food security. Cycles of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium and their relation to soil fertility and food production.
Compaction of agricultural soils : processes - impact - characterization - impact on plant yields -prevention.
Saline, sodic and acidic soils: amelioration and management.
Soil degradation - desertification – erosion: Consequences on food production - evaluation methods - mitigation measures and prevention.
Soil pollution: Types of pollutants - effects on soil ecosystem - effects on food production and quality. Soil decontamination - remediation: assessment - limitations - prevention. Soil as a recycler of organic residues, natural - artificial wetlands, functions, uses.
Modern technologies - soil management and food production: Application of remote sensing in agriculture – soil evaluation - assessment of crop damage - prediction model losses - monitoring tools - simulation models of crop growth and yield for food production.

Suggested Laboratory Exercises

Introduction - Units - Soil sampling, preparation of soil samples for analysis – Determination of soil water content.
Determination of soil color – Soil texture.
Determination of soil pH – buffering capacity- Carbonate – Lime requirement.
Determination of total C- Organic C – Organic matter - Microbial biomass.
Determination of total soluble salts -Electrical conductivity (EC) of soil - Irrigation water quality.
Determination of exchangeable cations - cation exchange capacity- Base saturation.
Determination of bulk density, porosity, soil structure – aggregate stability.
Soil water content determination - plant available water – soil water retention curve -water balance.
Determination of soil N (total-organic –inorganic forms)- soil P & P availability indices – exchangeable and soluble K.
Soil micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, B, Mo).
Saline, sodic and acid soils – amelioration methods.
Soil pollution - determination of heavy metals in soil.
Soil erosion: calculation of soil losses.

Suggested Reading

Brady, N.C., and R.R. Well. 2011. Εδαφολογία. Η φύση και οι ιδιότητες των εδαφών. Εκδ. ΕΜΒΡΥΟ-Στ. Βασιλειάδης.
Panagiotopoulos, Κ. Soil Science. 2010. Gartaganis Agis-Sabbas (In Greek).
Troeh, F.R., G.A. Hobbs, and R.L. Donahue. 2004. Soil and water conservation for productivity and environmental protection. 4th Edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Brady, N.C., and R.R. Well. 2008. The nature and properties of soils. Prentice Hall/Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.
Lal. R., and B.A. Stewart. 2010. Food Security and Soil Quality. Series: Advances in Soil Science. CRC Press.
Lal. R., and B. A. Stewart. 2011. World Soil Resources and Food Security. CRC Press
Gliessman, S. R. 2006. Agroecology: The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems. 2nd Edition. CRC Press
Dane, J. H. and G. C. Topp (ed.). 2002. Methods of soil analysis. Part 4. SSSA Book Series No. 5. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Klute, A. (ed.). 1986. Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. Agron. Monogr. No 9 (2nd edition). ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Page A.L. (ed.). 1982. Methods os soil analysis. Part 2. Chmemical and microbiological properties. Agron. Monogr. No 9 (2nd edition). ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
Westerman, R.L., (ed.). 1990. Soil testing and plant analysis. 3rd ed. SSSA Madison, WI.
Weaver, R.W. et al. (ed.). 1994. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. SSSA Book Series No 5, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.