Sixth Semester

LEGISLATION PERTAINING TO FOOD AND ORGANIC PRODUCTS

Course Objective
To provide knowledge regarding the legal framework that applies in Greece and the EU, the certification standards that are followed to ensure food safety and enable food trade, as well as the agencies and authorities that are responsible for the application of related legal provisions and regulations.

Content Summary
Development of food standards (ISO 22000). Development of basic regulations for organic farming, at home and abroad (Regulations 834/2007 and 889/2008) and for food (Regulations 852/2004, 853/2004, and 854/2004).

Suggested Reading
http://www.agrocert.gr
http://www.efet.gr
http://www.fao.org
http://europa.eu/pol/food/index_el.htm

TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

Course Objective
To investigate the techniques that apply to the technology and quality control of meat and meat products. Classification of meat products, selection of raw materials, processing methods, packaging, preservation of products deriving from thermal processing and maturation, prevention and assessment of the flaws that compromise quality, aiming at producing quality and healthy meat products.

Content Summary
Structure of striated muscle. Structure of myofiber. Chemical and biochemical composition of muscle. Conversion of muscle tissue to meat. Refrigeration and preservation of refrigerated meat. Abnormal departures from the quality of meat. Pasteurized cured meats. Quality of pasteurized cured meats. Maturation products. Organization and operation of industrial slaughterhouses. Classification and sectioning of mammal and bird carcasses.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Preparation of sample for analysis.
2. Moisture determination.
3. Fat determination (extractable free fat, total fat), refractometry.
4. Ash and salt.
5. Proteins and detailed meat percentage.
6. Total nitrogen determination by Kjeldahl.
7. Additives (nitrate, nitrite salts).
8. pH determination and evaluation in meat and its products.
9. Measurement of color in meat and its products.
10. Measurement of meat tenderness.

Suggested Reading
Georgakis, S. A. 2005. Meat and its Products. Synchroni Pedia Publications, Thessaloniki.
Lawrie, R. A. 1998. Meat Science. 6th ed. Woodhead Publishing.
Ramadanis, S. V. 2001. Technology and Quality of Meat and Meat Products. Laboratory Exercises.
Ramadanis, S. V. 2006. Technology and Quality of Meat and its Products. Synchroni Pedia Publications, Thessaloniki.
Warris, P. D. 2000. Meat Science: An Introductory Text. CABI Publishing.

TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF OLIVE OIL & FATTY SUBSTANCES

Course Objective
To investigate the techniques that apply to the technology and quality control of fats and olive oil.

Content Summary
Structure of fatty substances, determination of physical properties. Extraction of vegetable and animal fats, processing of fats and oils, production methods for butter and margarines. Qualitative characteristics of olives, composition of olive fruit, formation of olive oil, chemical composition of olive oil and constituents that contribute to the development of flavor and taste. Harvest and post harvest processing of olive fruit, table olives and olive paste. Extraction of olive oil from olive fruit – types of olive presses, olive press by-products and their utilization, storage and grading of olive oil. Factors affecting quality of olive oil – qualitative criteria and grades, chemical and physical processes for refinement of olive oil, oilseed oil, and olive kernel oil, sensory evaluation. Spoilage of fatty substances, antioxidants, techniques for determination of oxidation resilience, quality control of fried oils, quality control and determination of constants and constituents of fatty substances – adulteration control.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Methods of fatty substance production: extraction.
2. Assessment of physical properties, density – refraction index.
3. Determination of chemical constants: Reichert – Meissl, Polenske, Kirschner numbers.
4. Saponification number of fatty substances.
5. Determination of free fatty acids (acidity).
6. Determination of moisture of fatty substances.
7. Determination of unsaponifiable constituents – use of TLC for their separation.
8. Iodine number – determination of unsaturation of fatty substances.
9. Determination of oxidation state of fatty substances – determination of peroxide value – Kreis reaction.
10. Detection of foreign ingredients in olive oil with the Synodinos Constas method.

Suggested Reading
Balatsouras, G. 1997. Olive Oil: Modern Oleiculture II.
Dimoulas, K. Quality Control of Fats-Oils. OEDB.
Dimoulas, K. Technology of Fats-Oils. OEDB.
Kyritsakis, K. A. 2007. Olive Oil. Thessaloniki.

UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY

Course Objective
To provide students with the necessary knowledge background relative to the possibilities offered by new technologies to utilize waste products of the production process from farming activities and the food industry. The utilization of by-products from the primary and secondary sector contributes to sustainable development through reduced environmental pollution and the conservation of raw materials.

Content Summary
Characteristics of waste from agricultural and animal production and the food industry. Environmental loads from aforementioned waste (impacts on soil, water and air). Parameters for measuring pollution. Legislation related to agricultural, animal production, and food industry waste. Conventional systems for the management of liquid and solid waste and reuse of by-products. Studies for the reclamation and utilization of by-products derived from waste from agricultural and animal production and the food industry.

Suggested Reading
Gekas, B., and K. Balta. 2005. Food Industry and the Environment.
Kyranas, E. 2011. Functional Properties of Water, Proteins, Sugars, Lipids and Natural Pigments.
United Nations Environment Programme Industry and Environment (UNEP IE). 1995. Food Processing and the Environment.

FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY

Course Objective
To acquaint students with the applications of biotechnology relative to the food industry.

Content Summary
Introduction to food biotechnology, traditional and modern. DNA – recombinant DNA technology. Stages of the biotechnological process. Microbial biotechnology, microorganisms that are used in industrial fermentations, basic elements of industrial fermentations, substrates, sterilization, inoculation, fermentation methods. Solid phase cultures. Technology for enzyme and microorganism immobilization. Yeasts in the industry. Plant biotechnology: Genetically modified plants in food production. Animal biotechnology. Applications of biotechnology. Potential of biotechnology in food production and processing. Legal and moral issues of food biotechnology.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Selection of microorganisms that produce antibiotics, enzymes.
2. Microbial growth in a closed system (microbial growth curves, calculation of specific growth rate, consumption of limiting substrate – biomass yield).
3. Microbial metabolism – metabolite production (metabolite production curves and rates, stoichiometry of reactions during the production of microbial mass and products).
4. Bioreactors (continuous cultures – chemostat, fixed-bed reactor – cell immobilization).
5. Yeast production for animal feed. Continuous fermentation based on molasses.
6. Bacterial amylase. Isolation and culture of an amylase producing strain.
7. Citric acid production from the fungus Aspergilus niger.
8. Whole cell immobilization – yeast cell entrapment in calcium alginate matrix and its utilization in alcoholic fermentation.
9. Determination of microbial quality of yeast samples.
10. Lactic acid production via the microorganism Lactobacillus plantarum.
11. Isolation and characterization of mutants of the bacterium Serratia marcescens (via changes in pigment formation).
12. Detection of methane fermentation.
13. Alcohol production and conversion to vinegar.

Suggested Reading
Nerantzis, H. 2010. Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations.
Roukas, T. 2009. Food Biotechnology.
Tsapikounis, F. 1999. Biotechnology.

INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

Course Objective
To familiarize students with presentation software (MS PowerPoint) and database software (MS Access). Statistical packages (MS Excel and SPSS). Familiarization with internet, e-mail, retrieval of information and international literature. At the end of the course, students must appreciate the workings of computers, networks and databases, and how to fully integrate these tools into their discipline. Students must be able to employ computers to process text, execute statistical analyses, prepare presentations, retrieve information over the internet and digital databases, communicate via e-mail and other electronic media, and develop small scale applications to serve specific needs.

Content Summary
Basic principles of analysis and design of information systems, basic principles of database, categorization of programming languages, basic elements of programming, information security.

Laboratory Exercises
Graphical presentations using MS PowerPoint. Database (MS Access). Statistical packages (MS Excel and SPSS). Instruction and use of the internet (Internet Explorer), e-mail (Outlook Express), retrieval of information (Google, Yahoo, etc.) and international literature (electronic journals and scientific databases). Applications of informatics to Food Technology. Elements of programming in Visual Basic and Java.

Suggested Reading
Barker, D. I. and C. L. H. Barker. 1998. The World Wide Web Featuring Netscape Communicator.
Grauer, R. T. and M. Barber. Exploring Microsoft Access. Prentice-Hall.
Grauer, R. T. and M. Barber. Exploring Microsoft Excel. Prentice-Hall.
Grauer, R. T. and M. Barber. Exploring Microsoft PowerPoint. Prentice-Hall.
Kilias, C. and S. Kalafoutis. Computer Usage. Neon Technologion Publications.
Tsouroplis, A. and K. Klimopoulos. Introduction to Informatics. Neon Technologion Publications.