Seventh Semester

HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND HERBS

Course Objective
The study and presentation of horticultural crops and herb production and the factors directly affecting the quality of the final product. Native varieties and alternative uses of horticultural crops and herbs.

Content Summary
1. The state of horticultural crops and herbs worldwide, in the EU, and in Greece. The importance of vegetables in human diet. Modes of consumption of horticultural crops and herbs.
2. Classification methods. Types of operations. The influence of air and soil temperature, humidity, rainfall, solar radiation, wind, altitude, slope, etc. on the cultivation of horticultural crops and herbs.
3. Selection of cultivation sites. Design and organization of enterprises. Soil. Soil types, properties, structure, depth, pH, drainage, and preference of vegetables to various soil types.
4. Fertilization. Nutrients, soil analysis, plant analysis, fertilization scheduling, types and rates of chemical fertilizers, timing and methods of application. Organic matter, manure, and green manure.
5. Vegetable propagation. Sexual propagation, seeds, germination, dormancy. Nurseries and techniques of seedling production, nursery environment. Plant establishment. Direct sowing, sowing depth, transplanting, planting methods, thinning, post-transplanting care.
6. Population study and crop scheduling. Relationships between population density and yield, plant size, and time to maturity. Rotation, crop sequencing, replanting, intercropping. Irrigation of vegetables. Calculation of water requirements, irrigation methods, water quality.
7. Harvest. Harvest date, pre- and post-harvest treatments, manual harvest, mechanized harvest, sorting, standardization, and packaging. Vegetable storage. Storage needs, pre- and post-storage treatments, conditions of storage, storage in the field, regular warehouses and refrigerated warehouses.
8. Marketing and economic importance of vegetables.
9. Mechanization of vegetable cultivation. Machines for soil cultivation and nurseries, machines for transplanting. Sprayers, harvesters, sorting and packaging machines.
10. Organic cultivation of vegetables.
11. Soilless cultivation of horticultural crops (hydroponics).
12. Post-harvest treatments of horticultural crops.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Sowing of vegetables and herbs in nurseries. Seed identification of horticultural crops and herbs.
2. Grafting of fruiting vegetables with emphasis on impact on plant nutrition, yield, product quality and resistance of grafted plants to abiotic stress factors.
3. Soil preparation for transplanting. Transplanting.
4. Care of cultivated vegetables and herbs. Methods of irrigation, fertilization, pruning, plant support, plant protection, weed management, etc.
5. Influence of salt and drought stress on development, yield and quality of horticultural crops in the field and under cover. The use of models for the description and control of salinization.
6. The impact of nutrition, irrigation and environmental conditions on the onset of physiological anomalies in cultivated horticultural crops.
7. Nitrate concentration and methods for reduction of nitrates in vegetables.
8. Preserving the quality of leafy vegetables after harvest and during storage.
9. Evaluation of local (native) leafy vegetables for registration in Greek agriculture.
10. The influence of nitrogen fertilization on nitrate and volatile oil content of leafy herbs (parsley, dill).
11. The influence of salt and drought stress on the development of leafy herbs and their volatile oil content.
12. Organic cultivation of horticultural crops and the importance of biological nitrogen fixation on the nutrition of pulses and on the environment.
13. Volatile oil content of various herb phenotypes. Composition of volatile oils.

Suggested Reading
Dimitrakis, Κ., G. (1998). Horticulture. Agrotypos Publications, Athens.
Dorzas, C. (2012). Herbs and medicinal plants. Synchroni Pedia Publications, Thessaloniki.
Cassiotis, S. (2010). Herbs, medicinal plants and volatile oils. Kyriakides Brothers, Thessaloniki.
Kanakis, Α., G. (2004). The cultivation of vegetables in the greenhouse. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Koutsos, T., V. (2006). Herbs and medicinal plants. Zitis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Bletsos, F., Α. (2012). Practical horticulture and heirloom varieties. Zitis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Bletsos, F., Α. (2010). Vegetable grafting. Embryo Publications, Athens.
Olympios, C., Μ. (2001). The technique of cultivation of horticultural crops in the greenhouse. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Salunke, D., K. (1998). Handbook of vegetable science and technology. Taylor and Francis Inc, UK.
Swiader, J. (2001). Producing vegetable crops. Pearson Education, USA.
Thormar, H. (Ed.) (2011). Lipids and essential oils as antimicrobial agents. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., USA.
Scroumbis, V. (1998). Herbs, medicinal and apicultural plants of Greece. Agrotypos Publications, Athens.
Weiss, E., A. (1996). Essential oil crops. CABI Publishing, UK.

POMOLOGY – AMPELOGRAPHY

Course Objective
The study and presentation of the production of fruit and viticultural products and the factors directly affecting the quality of the end product.

Content Summary
1. The production of fruit at the global and national level. The fruit tree and its organs. Mode of fruiting of fruit trees. Breeding of fruit trees. Dormancy. Fruit set. Fruit growth. Nutrition of fruit trees. Water use by fruit trees.
2. The propagation of fruit trees. Rootstocks of fruit trees. Productivity of fruit trees. Hormones and growth regulators. Fruit ripening. Orchard establishment. Frost protection.
3. Origin and spread. Economic significance of cultivation. Taxonomy and organ description. Pollination and fertilization. Climate, soil, water. Propagation – rootstocks. Varieties. Cultivation practices. Ripening, harvest, packaging.
4. Pome fruits (apple, pear, quince). Stone fruits (peach, apricot, plum, cherry, sour cherry).
5. Nuts (almonds, pistachio, hazelnut, walnut, chestnut). Various fruits (fig, pomegranate, kiwi).
6. Subtropical fruits (olive, citrus).
7. The cultivation of grapevine in Greece and the world. Viticultural products (raisins, wine, table grapes). Elements of grapevine taxonomy.
8. Morphology and anatomy of the grapevine (root, stalk, leaves, buds, flowers, inflorescence, berry, cluster). Ecology – physiology of grapevine: Sprouting, dormancy, reproduction, photosynthesis-assimilate transport, assimilate storage, carbohydrate metabolism, transpiration, respiration, physiology and biochemistry of grape ripening – climate, soil.
9. Grapevine pruning. Propagation and cultivation practices (fertilization, irrigation, soil cultivation, weed control). Harvest.
10. Introduction to ampelography – taxonomy of Vitaceae – taxonomic systems of grape species and varieties – descriptive characteristics of grapevine organs – grapevine rootstocks resistant to root form phylloxera– productive grapevine varieties. Interspecific crossings.
11. Mutations and variability in grapevines. Grapevine breeding methods and techniques. Directions in the breeding of rootstocks resistant to root form phylloxera (resistance to phylloxera, downy mildew, powdery mildew, nematodes, drought, excess soil moisture, calcium carbonate, soil acidity, and soil salinity).
12. Directions in the breeding of new varieties of Vitis vinifera (functional type of flower, yield, shape and size of berry, color of berry skin, taste, seedlessness).

Laboratory Exercises
1. Description of major varieties of fruit trees and distinction among varieties depending on end use (raw consumption vs. processing).
2. Botanical characteristics. Laboratory identification of various fruit trees based on wood.
3. Orchard design and establishment.
4. Introduction to budding and grafting.
5. Pruning of fruit trees.
6. Visit to citrus farm. Participation in cultivation practices (pruning, fertilization, etc.).
7. Visit to olive farm. Participation in cultivation practices (pruning, fertilization, etc.). Identification of olive varieties based on pit characteristics.
8. Modern methods of olive harvest. Visit to olive press. Rational management of olive press wastes.
9. Participation in vineyard establishment (study of establishment site, row marking – plant spacing, hole drilling, planting, introduction to budding and grafting).
10. Visit to established vineyard (measurements of photosynthesis, chlorophyll, sugars, identification of pests and diseases, predicting time to harvest).
11. Modern methods of plant protection of orchards.
12. Global trends in fruit cultivation. Processing.

Suggested Reading
Vasilakakis, Μ. (2004). General and specific pomology. Gartaganis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Hofmann, J., B. (2003). Viticulture. Psychalos Publications, Athens.
Zarboutis, G., V. (2003). Elements of viticulture and enology. Ion Publications, Athens.
Lespinasse, J., M. (2011). Growing fruit trees. WW Norton & Co., USA.
Pontikis, Κ., Α. (1993). Specific pomoogy – Citrus. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Pontikis, Κ., Α. (1993). Specific pomoogy – Pome fruits. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Pontikis, Κ., Α. (1993). Specific pomoogy – Nuts, stone fruits, other fruit trees. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Pontikis, Κ., Α. (1993). Specific pomoogy – Oleiculture. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Stavrakakis, Μ., Ν. (2010). Ampelography. Tropi Publications, Athens.
Stavrakas, D., Ε. (2011). Ampelography. Zitis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Winkler, A., J. (1974). General viticulture. University of California Press. USA.

SEMINAR
Course Objective
To train students in the selection and development of a topic, primary data collection or secondary data analysis from various information sources, synthesis of data, composition of the final report and its oral presentation before an audience.  At the conclusion of the semester, the students are expected to have achieved the following goals:  (a) to be able to define the parameters of a topic that is worth investigating and interesting to themselves, (b) to know where and how to collect data for their project, how to process the data, how to compose the report and how to present it before an audience, and (c) aquire the foundations to consume and produce research.
Content Summary
Each student will select, investigate, and present a topic in seminar form to the rest of the class.  If the student has started their senior thesis, they can continue on the same topic.  After each presentation there will be discussion in which the entire class is expected to participate.  The objective of the discussion is to clarify aspects of the project and evaluate it for the purposes of improvement.  At the end the semester, students are expected to deliver the written report.
Laboratory Exercises
1.  Introductions and syllabus; Form and structure of the research report.
2.  Principles of communication; Style of the research report; Title, abstract, tables and figures, units, citations in text and bibliography, manuscript proofreading techniques; Development of the research proposal; Assignment of research papers from which to compose abstracts.
3.  Presentation techniques; Case study of descriptive research.
4.  Presentation and proofreading of research paper abstracts; Case study of experimental research.
5.  Presentation of project proposals.
6.  Presentation of final projects.
Suggested Reading
Bell, J.  2005.  Doing your Research Project.  4th ed.  McGraw-Hill, Maidenhead, England.
Hedges, E. L. 1989. Instructional media. The Ohio State University.
Kyriazi, N.  20002.  The Sociological Research.  15th ed.  Ellinika Grammata.
Ong, W. J.  1982.  Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. Methuen, London.
Sakalaki, M.  2008.  Communication, Collaboration, Information  - Aspects of Research and the Stakes for Knowledge Societies.  Papazisis, Athens.
Tierney, E.  1998.  101 Ways to Better Communication,  Kogan Page.
Zafiropoulos, C.  2005.  How a scientific report is made.  Kritiki Publications.

TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF SEAFOOD

Course Objective
Training and specialization related to production methods, preservation and quality control of seafood products.
Content Summary
1. Aquatic resources and their utilization. Global and national seafood harvest.
2. Taxonomy, anatomy and physiology of the catches. The major catches (fish, molluscs, crustaceans). Distribution of fishing resources.
3. Chemical composition and nutritional value of seafood. Postmortem transitions (sensory, biochemical, microbial). Sampling methods for catches.
4. Methods for evaluating sensory quality. Technology of seafood preservation.
5. Qualitative transitions and shelf life of seafood products. Qualitative characteristics and standards.
6. Preservation of seafood via refrigeration, modified atmosphere, freezing, salting, drying, marinating, smoking, irradiation, etc.
7. Seafood canning – fish, molluscs, and crustaceans.
8. Seafood by-products (botargo, fish meal, liver oil, caviar, fish roe, salmon roe, surimi, etc.).
9. Organization and operation of fish packing plants.
10. Special hygienic rules and authoritative controls of seafood products. The European legal framework for seafood safety and quality. Procedures for assurance and quality control. International standards ISO 9000 and HACCP.
Laboratory Exercises
1. Sampling of catches.
2. Taxonomy. Anatomy of fish, molluscs, crustaceans. Yield data. Chemical composition of seafood. Specific spoilage flora of fresh fishery products.
3. Biochemical and biological functions and quality of fresh catch (sensory control, chemical and biochemical methods, physical methods, bacterial methods, safety and hygiene).
4. The role of various seafood constituents in determining quality and possibilities for processing (fat, protein, carbohydrate, pigments, minerals-vitamins, nitrogen compounds).
5. Handling of fresh catch (preservation of the quality of fresh catch according to species, season and fishery, spoilage, causes of spoilage, handling on board the fishing vessel, hygiene of fishing vessels and their containers, and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP).
6. Refrigeration and freezing (seafood freezing and derivation of freezing curve, denaturation of proteins during freezing with determination of salt-soluble protein: Kjeldahl method, determination and increase of trimethylamine in frozen samples, determination and increase of formaldehyde during freezing, determination of fatty substances, hydrolysis and oxidation of fatty substances during freezing).
7. Preservation of the catch with various processes (drying, salting, smoking) (salting of catch, water content and preserving ability, water activity and microbial spoilage, smoking of catch, basic ingredients of smoke).
8. Seafood canning (can production, quality control of cans, sensory evaluation of the canned product, determination of secondary oxidation output in the canned product).
9. Enzymatic blackening of crustaceans.
10. Other products (surimi, fermented products).
Suggested Reading
Bremner, H. A. 2003. Safety and Quality Issues in Fish Processing. Woodhead Publishing, United Kingdom.
Cutting, C. L. 1955. Fish Saving; A History of Fish Processing From Ancient to Modern Times. L. Hill, London.
Hall, G. M. 1997. Fish Processing Technology. Springer, New York.
Papanastasiou, D. 1991. Technology and Quality Control of Seafood. Ion Publications, Athens.
Pearson, A. M. and T. R. Dutson. 1999. HACCP in Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing. Vol. 10 of Advances in Meat Research. Springer, New York.
Shahidi F., Jones Y., and D. D. Kitts. 1997. Seafood Safety, Processing, and Biotechnology. Technomic, USA.
Vareltzis, K. 1999. Quality Control and Technology of Seafood. Synchroni Pedia Publications, Thessaloniki.

FOOD TOXICOLOGY

Course Objective
To acquaint students with toxic substances in food as intrinsic constituents, as extrinsic environmental agents, as products of interaction among ingredients during processing, and as microbial toxins. An understanding of how toxins affect the human body, their symptoms, and ways to avoid and prevent toxic effects.
Content Summary
Definition of food toxicology. Evaluation of food safety. Modes of action of toxic sybstances. Phases of toxic action. Relationship between dosage, effect and reaction time. Synergy and antagonism among toxic substances. Definitions of ADI and NOEL. Toxicological assays. Modes of toxicity expression. Toxicological function of the gastrointestinal tract. Microbial toxins. Staphylococci, salmonelas, coliforms, botulism, mycotoxins. Environmental toxins. Food toxicity: Phytic acid, lectins, seafood toxins, hormones, lathyrism, favism. Toxicity of natural food ingredients: Sugars, fats, amino acids, caffein, alcohol. Sodium glutamate. Chinese restaurant syndrome. Antinutritional factors (vitamin antagonists, enzyme inhibitors). Interaction between medicines and food ingredients. Toxic substances from the environment. Lead, cadmium, mercury, pesticides. Toxic substances that form during food processing and preparation. Food allergies: Definition, types.
Laboratory Exercises
Introduction to laboratory toxicological analyses of food. Analysis methods. Design of basic measurement parameters. Reference curve. Dtermination of toxic substances in food.
Suggested Reading
Botsoglou, N. and D. Fletouris. 2000. Drug Residues in Foods. Marcel Dekker.
Breneman, C. J. 1986. Handbook of Food Allergies. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Galanopoulou, K. 2007. Nutrition and Food Chemistry.
Hathcock, H. J. 1982. Nutritional Toxicology. Vol I. London Academic Press.
Sflomos, C. S. 2011. Food Chemistry with Elements of Nutrition. Vol. I. Athens.
Tu, A. T. 1992. Handbook of Natural Toxins. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Yaginis, K., C. Karantonis, E. Giaouris, and T. Stamatios. Basic Principles of Toxicology: Introduction to Food Toxicology.

NUTRITION OF FARM ANIMALS AND QUALITY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Course Objective
To acquire the basic knowledge regarding nutrition and organic nutrition of farm animals in order to produce quality animal products suitable for processing.
Content Summary
Nutritional physiology. Basic anatomical and physiological elements of the digestive system. Bromatology. Basic knowledge regarding description, classification and physical and chemical properties of animal feeds. Feed additives. Applied nutrition and organic nutrition of farm animals. Rations and their properties. Nutrition of ruminants, herbivores and omnivores. Nutritional systems. Nutrition and quality of animal products. How nutrition affects the qualitative characteristics of meat, milk and eggs to produce quality animal products with commercial and processing value.
Laboratory Exercises
Demonstration and description of main animal feeds.
Animal feed processing – demonstration of related mechanical and other equipment.
Balancing rations, exercises in mixing and economic evaluation of the mix.
Formulating rations.
Calculation of apparent digestibility coefficient, feed conversion ratio.
Simple methods for determining quality of animal products relative to supplied rations.

Suggested Reading
Kalaisakis, P. 1975. Bromatology. Agricultural Univ. of Athens.
Kalaisakis, P. 1982. Nutritional Physiology of Farm Animals. Agricultural Univ. of Athens.
Kalaisakis, P. 1985. Applied Nutrition of Farm Animals. Agricultural Univ. of Athens.
Kandylis, K. 1992. Lessons in Ruminology. Agricultural Univ. of Athens.
Papadopoulos, G. 1998. Technology of Animal Feeds – Quality Control.
Papadopoulos, G. 2000. Dairy Products in Animal Nutrition.
Papatheodorou, T., N. Nikolaou, and E. Tzortzakaki. 2007. Organic Animal Production. Agrotypos.
Sarlis, G. 1985. Improvement and Management of Pastures. Agricultural Univ. of Athens.
Smokovitis, A. 1993. Physiology. Kyriakidis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Yeorgakis, S., K. Vareltzis, and I. Amvrosiadis. 2002. Technology of Products of Animal Origin. Synchroni Pedia Publications, Thessaloniki.
Zervas, G. 2007. Formulating Rations for Production Animals. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Zervas, G., P. Kalaisakis, and K. Feggeros. 2000. Nutrition of Farm Animals. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.

FOOD PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Course Description
This course provides a series of lecture and laboratory classes that cover the basic theoretical and practical concepts associated with the design and development of new food products and processes. The product development process: the need for new products, types of new products, the development team, idea generation, steps in the product development process; the role and specific tasks of market research, market research techniques, target markets, limitations of market research. The role of advertising and supermarkets in new product success, product lifecycle, reasons for new product failure and preventative strategies. Ingredient and additive behavior and contributions in foods: properties of the major food components in relation to food properties, storage stability and nutritional properties of foods. Impact of new technology. Sensory analysis: basic sensory analysis techniques, interpretation and implementation of sensory testing data.
Course Objectives
Students completing the course should:
1. Be able to identify the processes and stages required to bring a new food product from conception to commercialization.
2. Have produced in the laboratory a prototype of a new product that has a high probability that it could be produced commercially.
3. Be aware of the dynamics of working on a product development team.
4. Understand how to write a product formula and finished product specifications.
5. Know what technical and scientific data must be available before a product can be manufactured.
Lecture and Laboratory Schedule
Week # Lecture Laboratory
1 Introduction to food product development Introduction to food product development. Form teams.
2 The Marketing Drive for New Food Products Produce a food product and conduct sensory evaluation and make improvements on the product.
3 Food Product Development process Analyze new food products introduced into the market within the last year and compare them to competitive counterpart.
4 Sensory Evaluation & use in product development Sensory analysis
5 New product failure and success. Work on project
6 Overview of product development. Work on project
7 Packaging Work on project
8 Analytical Techniques Work on project
9 Shelf life of packaged goods, its measurement and prediction Work on project
10 Food Regulations Work on project
11 Launching the new product Work on project
12 Oral Presentations Project presentations

Recommended Readings
1. Developing New Food Products for a Changing Marketplace. Edited by AL Brody and JB Lord. CRC Press. 2000.
2. New Food Product Development from Concept to Marketplace. Gordon W. Fuller, Third Edition-CRC Press (2011)
3. Accelerating New Food Product Design and Development (Institute of Food Technologists Series) - 2007 Blackwell Publishing and the Institute of Food Technologists
4. An Integrated Approach to New Food Product Development. Howard R. Moskowitz, I. Sam Saguy, Tim Straus - CRC Press (2009)

ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES – FOOD COSTING
Course Objective
To aid in the comprehension of the use of accounting in the business environment.
Content Summary
The industrial enterprise and its operations in general.  Balance sheet – assets – liabilities – net worth.  Balance accounts.  Profit and loss statement, depreciations.  Concepts and types of cost.  Cost factors – cost centers.  Elements of production cost.  Raw materials, peronnel wages, general industrial expenses.  Tables of production costs.
Suggested Reading
Filios, V.  2012.  Administrative Accounting.  1st ed.  Utilization and Management Company of the Assets of the Economic Univ. of Athens.
Varvakis, C.  2013.  Costing and Cost Structure.  1st ed.  Papazisis Publications.

FOOD HYGIENE AND SAFETY
Course Objective
To aquaint students with the basic principles of producing healthy and safe food and to familiarize them with specific hygienic rules per food type.
Content Summary
Health provisions that apply to production, products, and personnel.  Views on the design of hygiene.  Microorganisms and hygiene.  Causes of food contamination.  Personal hygiene and food handling.  Detergents.  Dsinfections.  Cleaning equipment and systems.  Waste handling.  Control of rodents and insects.  Specific section:  Special hygienic rules per food type (products of refrigeration, freezing, thermal processing, and drying; soda and juices; products preserved based on their composition; bakery and patisserie products).  Development of programs for hygienic control of critical hazard points.  Organization and application of programs for quality assurance.  Organization of health inspections in the factory.  Plant location, design, construction, equipment, maintenance, cleaning, disinfection, pest control, personnel, raw and supplementary materials, packaging materials, processing, packaging, food storage and transport, retail locations, high risk areas.  Duties of the hygienist, inspections, program design, cooperation with authorities.  Responsibilities of the work safety officer in an industrial plant.  Food safety, HACCP principles, safety management.
Suggested Reading
Arvanitoyannis, I., D. Sandrou, and L. Kourtis.  2001.  Food Safety, Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in the Food Industry.  University Studio Press, Thessaloniki.
Bergigoglou, E.  2010.  Hygiene of the Food and Drug Industry.
Kalogridou-Vasileiadou, D.  1999.  Rules of Good Hygienic Practices for Food Enterprises.

ENGLISH TERMINOLOGY
Course Objective
To educate students in the comprehension of foreign (English) language scientific texts and to familiarize them with the expert scientific terminology that is employed in English-language scientific publications related to food science.
Content Summary
Foreign language grammar.  Dictionary, word usage.  Effective oral communication.  Development of advanced reading, writing and comprehension skills of foreign language text.  Systematic training and practice in language use using texts related to food technology.

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS
Course Objective
To inform students on modern nutritional views that dictate the design of new products and food industry trends regarding the development of new products.
Content Summary
Theoretical views and applications regarding development of new products for human nutrition.  Review of the principles and methods that are employed in the decision making process as far as the development of new products, as well as the design, preparation, qualitative evaluation, standardization, marketing and advertisement, market research and patent registration for a new product.  Legal constraints regarding ingredients, processes, packaging and labeling.
Suggested Reading
Brennan, J. G.  2006.  Food Processing Handbook.  Wiley.
Brody, A. L. and J. B. Lord.  2000.  Developing New Food Products for a Changing Marketplace.  CRC Press.
Galanos, D.  2001.  Our Nutrition Today.  EKPA.
Linden, G. and D. Dorient.  1999.  New Ingredients in Food Processing.  CRC Press.
Robert, O.  2005.  Clonage et OGM: Quels risques, quels espoirs.  Petite encyclopédie Larousse, Paris.
Sflomos, C.  2006.  Development of Food Products.  TEI of Athens.