Second Semester

STATISTICAL APPLICATIONS IN FOOD SCIENCE

Course Objective
To enable students to comprehend the basic principles and methods of statistical analysis and acquaint them with applications of statistics in food science and technology.

Content Summary
The use of statistics in food science. Descriptive statistics, methods of statistical analysis, estimation of central tendency measures and variance of data. Elements of probability. Basic distributions (normal, binomial, Poisson). Sampling – experimental design. Derivative distributions (t-distribution, chi-square distribution). Statistical tests, analysis of variance, non-parametric tests. Linear regression and correlation. Statistical quality tests – control charts.

Laboratory Exercises
Applications of statistical analysis on data from technological applications using statistical and graphing packages.
1. Acquaintance with analysis tools of MS Excel.
2. Introduction and exploration of data.
3. Data: Summaries, transformations, processing.
4. Plotting methods for quickly summarizing data.
5. Plotting methods for detailed description of data.
6. Descriptive statistics.
7. Hypothesis testing for comparison of one or two samples.
8. Analysis of variance – multiple means comparisons.
9. Simple linear regression and correlation.
10. Diagnostic criteria for validity of regression – comparison of regression vs. correlation.
11. Analysis of categorical variables.
12. Non-parametric statistical analysis.

Suggested Reading
In Greek:
• Kiochos, P. 1993. Statistics. Athens.
• Kitsos, H. 2003. Management and Statistical Quality Control. Athens.
• Petridis, D. 1997. Applications of Statistics in Food Technology. Thessaloniki.

In English:
• Bender, F. E., L. W. Douglass, and A. Kramer. 1989. Statistical Methods for Food and Agriculture. Food Products Press, New York.
• Bower, J. 2009. Statistical Methods for Food Science. Introductory Procedures for the Food Practitioner. Wiley-Blackwell.

FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

Course Objective
To provide students with the basic knowledge of Food Microbiology and the expertise in performing microbiological analyses and quality assessment of food in order to protect consumer health.

Content Summary
- Bacterial pathogens, viruses and protozoa that infect humans through food and water.
- Pathways of food contamination. Conditions for development of food borne microorganisms.
- Microorganisms employed by the food industry.
- Microbial population counting in foods (selective substrates and specialized techniques to detect certain bacteria).
- Relationship of Food Microbiology to the chain of production, transport and storage of foods.
- Enzymes produced by microbes on an industrial scale.
- Food poisonings and food infections.
- Microbiological standards for food, drink and water (final products as well as raw and intermediate materials).

Laboratory Exercises
- Cultivation on selective/diagnostic substrates of the following bacteria: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Clostridium perfringens using ATCC strains.
- Microbiological examination of canned foods.
- Microbiological examination of cereals.
- Microbiological examination of milk and dairy products.
- Microbiological examination of eggs and egg products.
- Microbiological examination of seafood.
- Microbiological examination of carbonated drinks, juices-drinks-thermally processed foods.
- Microbiological examination of meat and meat products.
- Microbiological examination of spices.
- Microbiological examination of fruits and vegetables.
Depending on food group, there will be total counting of mesophilic, psychrophilic, and thermophilic microorganisms as well as isolation and counting of indicator microorganisms of food. Where necessary, there will be detection and counting of the microorganisms Eschrichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, clostridia, yeasts and fungi or counting of fungal hyphae.
- Microbiological examination of water (most probable number and membrane-filter).
- Microbiological examination of surfaces and equipment of the food industry.
- Modern fast methods of microorganism identification (API, Sensititer, Enterotube).
- Immunological methods (ELISA).
- Molecular methods (PCR).

Suggested Reading
• Balatsouras, G. 2006. Food Microbiology. Embryo Publications.
• De W. Blackburn, C., and P. J. McClure (ed.). 2009. Foodborne Pathogens: Hazards, Risk Analysis, and Control. 2nd edition. CRC Press.
• Harrigan, W.F. 1998. Laboratory Methods in Food Microbiology. 3rd ed. Academic Press.
• Jay, M. J., M. J. Loessner, and D. A. Golden. 2004. Modern Food Microbiology (Food Science Text Series). 7th ed. Springer.
• Khetarpaul, N. 2006. Food Microbiology. Daya Publishing House.
• McMeekin, T. A. (ed.). 2003. Detecting Pathogens in Food. CRC Press.
• Montville, T. J., K. R. Matthews, and K. E. Kniel. 2012. Food Microbiology: An Introduction. 3rd ed. ASM Press
• Patel, P. D. (ed.). 1994. Rapid Analysis Techniques in Food Microbiology. Blackie Academic and Professional.
• Spencer, J. F. T., and A. L. Ragout de Spencer (ed.). 2001. Food Microbiology Protocols. Humana Press.
• Vassos, D. 2004. Food and Consumer Health. Papasotiriou Publications.

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF FOOD

Course Objective
To provide an understanding of the basic principles of Physical Chemistry required to investigate the physicochemical processes related to food.

Content Summary
The physical basis of Chemistry: Thermodynamic systems, temperature, departures from ideal behavior-compressibility. Properties of gases: Law of ideal gases, Dalton’s Law of partial pressures, non-ideal behavior, gas liquefaction, boiling hysteresis and supersaturated vapor. Chemical thermodynamics: Thermochemistry, entropy, phase transitions, chemical potential, chemical equilibrium, chemical equilibrium of solutions. Solution thermodynamics: Raoult’s Law, ideal solutions, freezing point depression and boiling point elevation, osmosis, polarity and bipolar momentum, true solutions. Surface tension: Definition, thermodynamic definition, wetting phenomena, capillary phenomena. Surface reactivity. Surfactants. Emulsions and foams. Chemical kinetics: Reaction rate, chemical reaction order, reaction rate constant, reactions of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order, temperature dependence of reaction rate. Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, effect of temperature on reaction rate constant, collision theory and activated complex theory.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Chemical kinetics
2. Determination of reaction temperature
3. Equilibrium between phases of a pure substance
4. Equilibrium between phases of a system with multiple constituents
5. Distribution of a substance between two immiscible phases
6. Mixtures of volatile constituents
7. Conductivity
8. Partial molar volume
9. Adsorption phenomena

Suggested Reading
Giannakoudakis, D., and P. Giannakoudakis. 1996. Concise Physical Chemistry.
Katsanos, N. 1993. Physical Chemistry, Basic Overview.
Ritzoulis, H. 2011. Physical Chemistry of Food.

ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTION

Course objective
To provide knowledge pertaining to the principles of organic production and how to produce quality organic food.

Content summary
Current nutritional trends that dictate the design of organic foods, trends in the food industry for developing new products and their applications. Basic principles and concepts related to research and development of new organic foods, and specific case studies that implement strategies and processes for the development of organic foods, heeding the demands of industry and consumers.

Laboratory exercises
1. Definition of organic products - organic foods.
2. Differences between organic and conventional foods.
3. Legislation governing organic food production.
4. The need for developing organic foods - basic principles and concepts related to research and development of new products.
5. Strategies for developing organic foods - processes for developing new organic products.
6. Agencies and organizations responsible for the certification and inspection or organic products in Greece.
7. Pesticides and soil amendments approved for organic farming in Greece.
8. Factors shaping the demand for organic foods.
9. Suggested marketing strategies for organic foods in Greece.
10. Problems of the organic food sector/prospects and proposals.

Suggested reading
Brennan, J. G. 2006. Food Processing Handbook. Wiley, Germany.
Justin, P. and R. Jyoti. 2012. Consumer behavior and purchase intention for organic food. J. Consumer Marketing 29(6):412–422.
Krystallis, A., C. Fotopoulos, and Y. Zotos. 2006. Organic consumers’ profile and their willingness to pay (WTP) for selected organic food products in Greece. J. Int’l Consumer Marketing 19(1):81–106.
Lairon, D. 2010. Nutritional quality and safety of organic food; a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 30(1):33–41.
Linden, G. and D. Dorient. 1999. New Ingredients in Food Processing. CRC Press, USA.
Magkos, F., F. Arvaniti, and A. Zampelas. 2003. Organic food: nutritious food or food for thought? A review of the evidence. Int’l J. Food Sci. Nutr. 54(5):357–371.
Sflomos, K. 2006. Developing Food Products. TEI of Athens.
Tsakiridou, E., C. Boutsouki, Y. Zotos, and K. Mattas. 2008. Attitudes and behaviour towards organic products: An exploratory study. Int’l J. Retail Distribution Management 36(2):158–175.
Williams, C. M. 2002. Nutritional quality of organic food: Shades of grey or shades of green? Proc. Nutr. Soc. 61:19–243.
Yiridoe, E. K., S. BontiAnkomah, and R. C. Martin. 2005. Comparison of consumer perceptions and preference toward organic versus conventionally produced foods: A review and update of the literature. Renewable Agric. Food Systems 20:193–205.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Course Objective
To deepen and expand the knowledge of high school organic chemistry so that students can comprehend those curriculum subjects that require a solid background in organic chemistry. To recognize the functional groups of organic compounds, to comprehend the accompanying reactions and mechanisms, to correlate the structure of compounds with their biological activity, and to predict with the help of those techniques a number of properties of organic compounds.

Content Summary
Nomenclature and structure of organic compounds. Elements of stereochemistry and spectrum analysis. Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Alcohols and ethers. Carbonylic compounds and esters. Lipids. Amines, amino acids, peptids, proteins. Ionic properties of amino acids and methods of studying proteins. Carbohydrates. Benzene and aromatic compounds. Purines, pyrimidines, nucleic acids. Anthocyans, phenols, terpenes, alkaloids, steroids, vitamins.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Relationships between structure and physical properties.
2. Properties of solvents and re-crystallization of organic solids.
3. Separation methods: Simple and vaccum filtration, centrifugation, distillation.
4. Separations based on acidity and alkalinity.
5. Isolation of a natural product – determination of milk casein.
6. Separation funnel – Decanting.
7. Chromatography techniques: Solvents and polarity effects on thin layer chromatography – Separation of natural pigments with paper chromatography.
8. Distinction – Identification of organic compounds.
9. Comparison of strength of organic and inorganic acids.
10. Volumetric determination of organic acids in food.
11. Ester hydrolysis – soap preparation.

Suggested Reading
Carrey, F. A. 2007. Organic Chemistry. Mc Graw-Hill.
McMurry, J. 1996. Organic Chemistry. Vol. I and II. University Publications of Crete.
Schoffstall, A. M., A. B. Gaddis, and M. L. Druelinger. 2004. Microscale and Miniscale Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiments. Mc Graw-Hill
Spiliopoulos, I. 2008. Basic Organic Chemistry.
Varvoglis, A. 1996. Principles of Organic Chemistry.
Wade, L. G. 2005. Organic Chemistry. Pearson Prentice Hall.

QUANTITATIVE ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Course Objective
To comprehend the methods that apply to each quantitative determination and the theoretical interpretation of the use of each reagent and instrument.

Content Summary
Introduction to quantitative analytical chemistry. Solutions. Chemical reactions. Stoichiometric calculations. Reaction rate. Chemical equilibrium (Le Chatelier principle. Chemical equilibrium constant). Heterogeneous chemical equilibrium. Solubility product. Gravimetric analysis. pH. Buffering solutions. Titration (theoretical principles, requirements of titration, classification of titration methods, equilibrium point, neutralization, titration curves, measurement errors, significant digits, accuracy, precision, t-test. Neutralization titrations. Precipitation titrations (Argentometry). Redox titrations. Complex titrations.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Gravimetric analysis, Determination of water content of a solid (use of scale, desiccator).
2. Oxymetry (preparation – titration of standard solution, use of pipette and burette).
3. Alkalimetry (determination of concentration of a solid sample, dilution).
4. pH-metric determination of phosphoric acid (titration with ph meter, ionization curves of polyprotic acids).
5. Buffering solutions (preparation of buffering solution, calculation of buffering capacity).
6. Redox titrations (determination of sulfide salts).
7. Iodimetry (indirect titration – blank determination).
8. Precipitation titrations (Argentometry – determination of chlorides with Mohr’s method)
9. Complex titrations (determination of drinking water hardness).
10. Separate determination of calcium and magnesium salts.

Suggested Reading
George, V. 2011. Analytical Chemistry and Instrumented Analysis in Nutrition.
Hadjiioannou, Th. P. 1990. Laboratory Exercises in Quantitative Analytical Chemistry. Athens.
Liodakis, S. 2001. Analytical Chemistry.
Themelis, and G. Zachariades. 1997. Analytical Chemistry.
Themelis, D., and G. Zacharioudakis. 1984. Analytical Chemistry – Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. Thessaloniki.
Xenos, K. 2006. Analytical Chemistry.