Fourth Semester

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FOOD CHEMISTRY
Course Objective
To enable students to comprehend the chemical processes that take place in food throughout the food chain, from production to consumption. To intervene with various means or conditions in order to prevent undesirable postharvest transformations or to promote desirable postharvest transformations that happen during food processing, storage, and cooking. To comprehend the chemical basis behind every food analysis method that aims to verify the identity (adulteration), the quality, and the functionality of food.

Content Summary
Introductory concepts from Nutrition, postharvest and gastronomic Chemistry. Structure, chemical and physicochemical properties of the principal food nutrients: Water, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, enzymes. Functional properties of fatty substances, carbohydrates and proteins. Chemical transformations that happen during food processing, storage and cooking. Food flavor and color. Vitamins and natural antioxidants. Additives and undesirable substances in food. Novel foods. New food constituents.

Suggested Reading
Belitz, H.-D., W. Grosch, and P. Schieberle. 2011. Food Chemistry.
Boskou, D. 2007. Food Chemistry.
Galanopoulou, K., G. Zabetakis, M. Mavri-Vavayanni, and A, Siafaka. 2007. Nutrition and Food Chemistry.
Sflomos, K. 2011. Food Chemistry with Elements of Nutrition. Vol. I.

FOOD ENGINEERING

Course Objective
To acquire knowledge and practical experience related to the processes that occur during processing and standardization of food by the industry. Along with theoretical knowledge, practical applications of the aforementioned processes in the laboratory.

Content Summary
Quantities, dimensions and unit systems, mass and energy balance, applications. Types of flow and fluids, definition of viscosity, basic equations of fluids, applications. Basic concepts of thermodynamics, applications. Heat transfer at steady-state with conduction, convection and radiation, heat exchange.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Mass balance
2. Measurement of viscosity
3. Filtration
4. Desiccation
5. Sieving
6. Centrifugation
7. Precipitation
8. Mixing
9. Distillation
10. Homogenization
11. Emulsification
12. Heat transfer

Suggested Reading
Lambropoulos, A. and S. Anestis. 2005. Mechanical and Thermal Processes in Food, Theory.
Lambropoulos, A. and S. Anestis. 2005. Mechanical and Thermal Processes in Food, Laboratory Manual.
Lazarides, H. 2007. Food Engineering.
Mc Cabe, W. L., J. C. Smith, and P. Harriot. 2002. Basic Processes of Chemical Engineering. Tziolas.

FOOD AND BEVERAGE PACKAGING

Course Objective
To acquaint students with the materials, shapes, and basic functions of food and beverage packaging as well as the effect of packaging on safety, quality and preservation of the product.

Content Summary
Definitions and functions of food packaging. Glass materials and means of packaging. Metal materials and means of packaging. Corrosion of metal packaging. Plastic materials and means of packaging. Thermoplastic polymers for food packaging. Processing and shaping thermoplastic polymers. Permeability of polymers in gases and vapors. Paper packaging. Packaging in modified atmosphere. Aseptic processing and packaging. Packaging for microwavable food. Shelf life of packaged food. Packaging selection for representative types of food. Interactions between packaging and food. Legislation regarding materials and means for food packaging. Food packaging and the environment. New developments in food packaging.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Quality control of the double seam in cans.
2. Quality control of aseptic packaging.
3. Study of corrosion of internal surfaces of tin cans.
4. Study of corrosion of Fe and Al.
5. Packaging in modified atmosphere.
6. Permeability of plastic films to vapor.
7. Determination of shelf life of food sensitive to moisture uptake.
8. Determination of the identity of thermoplastic polymers with density test and combustion test.
9. Separation of layers of multi-layered packaging (laminates) and measurement of the thickness of each layer.
10. Mechanical properties of plastics – measurement of mechanical resistance parameters of packaging materials.

Suggested Reading
Arvanitoyannis, I., and L. Bosnea. 2001. Elements of Food Technology, Processing and Packaging.
Bloukas, I. 2004. Food Packaging.
Papadakis, S. 2010. Food Packaging.

INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FOOD

Course Objective
To acquaint students with applications of instrumental analysis methods and provide experience in the use of analytical instruments, and to provide skills for processing, correlating and presenting results.

Content Summary
Introduction to instrumental analysis techniques. Errors and statistical processing of analytical results. Electrochemical methods (Conductometry, potentiometry, amperometry, polarography, coulometry). Spectroscopic techniques (UV-visible spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, fluorometry, flame spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry). Chromatography (Paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), ionic chromatography). Refractometry (Definition, basic knowledge, molecular refraction, refractometers, fields of application). Polarimetry. Determination of optically active compounds.

Laboratory Exercises

1. pH-metry-potentiometry
2. Flame photometry
3. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry
4. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)
5. Gas chromatography
6. Paper chromatography - thin layer chromatography
7. Polarimetry
8. Refractometry
9. UV-visible spectrophotometry
10. Infrared spectrophotometry
11. Conductometry

Suggested Reading
Hadjiioannou, T. and M. Koupparis. 1990. Instrumental Analysis.
Lydakis-Simantiris N. 2009. General Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis, Questions and Laboratory Exercises.
Papadoyannis, I. and V. Samanidou. 2001. Instrumental Chemical Analysis.

TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF CEREAL GRAINS AND BREAD PRODUCTS

Course Objective
To acquaint students with the characteristics, properties and composition of cereal grains and the technology of manufacturing bread products as well as the required quality controls.

Content Summary
Cereal grains: General, importance, sampling methods and storage. Structure and composition of grains. Dry milling of grains. Dehusking of grains. Wet milling of grains. Various food products from grains. Products from wheat flour. Materials for bread products. Alcohol production from cereal grains. Beer, whiskey. Principles and implementation of quality control on raw materials, intermediate, and final products. Quality characteristics, standards, evaluation.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Sampling, qualitative examination, processing, flours from various grains.
2. Quality control of flours, types of flours, determination of moisture and ash in cereal grains and flours.
3. Sedimentation value test.
4. Determination of acidity and pH in flours.
5, Determination of gluten quality and quantity.
6. Detection of flour improvers. Pekar test, the use of improvers-additives in flours.
7. Evaluation of the workability of flours as affected by baking improvers and enhancers.
8. Manufacturing of bread, cakes, cookies.
9. Methods of measuring the amylase activity of flours.
10. Quality control of pasta, standards for pasta.
11. Quality control of rice – standards.

Suggested Reading
Bosdikos, D. 2005. Bread Making Technology.
Kefalas, P. 2009. Food from Cereal Grains.
Papacosta-Tasopoulou, D. 2012. Special Agronomy – Cereals and Pulses.

TECHNOLOGY OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

Course Objective
The objective is for students to comprehend the chemical composition, the physicochemical properties and the microbiology of milk and its products, as well as to acquaint themselves with the methods of milk processing and manufacturing of dairy products.

Content Summary
Constituents and physicochemical properties of milk. Microbiology of fresh milk. Unhealthy – unsuitable milk. Factors that affect the composition of milk. Hygiene of production, preservation and transport of milk. Influence of thermal processing on the constituents and physicochemical properties of milk. Quality control of fresh milk. Pasteurized milk: Production and quality control. Sterilization – long life milk: Production and quality control. Condensed milk (evaporated and sweetened): Production and quality control. Powdered milk: Production and quality control. Yogurt: Yogurt micro flora, production technology, yogurt types, spoilage, quality control. Cream – butter: Production technology and quality control. Ice cream: Production technology and quality control. Cheese: Production technology, composition and types of cheese, microbiology, quality control.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Determination of specific weight of milk with Quevenne lactometer, solid residue, moisture and ash.
2. Determination of fat with Gerber titration and solids-non-fat residue.
3. Determination of milk acidity.
4. Determination of milk protein with Pyne’s method – formaldehyde number.
5. Precipitation and determination of milk casein.
6. Tests of the thermal processing of milk (phosphatase test according to Fischer-Schwartz and methylene blue test).
7. Yogurt manufacturing.
8. Determination of yogurt acidity,
9. Determination of salt in cheese with Vohlard’s method.
10. Determination of cheese acidity.

Suggested Reading
Kehagias, H. 2011. Milk, Science, Technology, and Quality Assurance Checks.
Mantis, I. A. 2005. Hygiene and Technology of Milk and its Products.
Varnam, A. H. and J. P. Sutherland. 2008. Milk and Dairy Products.

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