First Semester

INFORMATICS
Course Objective
To provide the necessary knowledge and acquaint students with computer applications in Food Technology.

Content Summary
Introduction to computers. Digital systems. Technical characteristics of computers. Microprocessors. Microcomputers. Operating systems, windows applications, applications for recording, processing and management of data, word processing applications, plotting applications.

1. Introduction to computers (Basic elements of hardware and software. Storage and management of data. Computer structure. Terminals, workstations and networks. Introduction to the main types of software).

2. Information processing (Data entry units, techniques and applications to real world problems. Permanent memory storage: Disks, diskettes, CD-ROMs, VDUs, printers and other output devices. Windows operating system and file storage. Basic elements of file organization).

3. Communication of data (Introduction to networks. Basic network topologies. Basic concepts of internet, communication and information search. Use of internet and e-mail).

4. Word processing (Starting up Word. Creating documents. Document processing. Moving and copying text. Working with fonts. Working with paragraphs. Language checking tools. Document views. Printing. Tables. Mail merge. Graphics. Saving files as different type).

5. Spreadsheets (Starting up. Creating worksheets. Performing basic calculations. Formatting. Changing structure. Printing. Working with multiple worksheets. Graphs / Images).

Laboratory Exercises
Introduction to the MS Windows operating system (Basic elements and concepts, File management, Built-in Windows applications, Control panel, Installing and removing applications, Printing, Safety and virus management). Word processing (MS Word), Spreadsheets (MS Excel). Graphical presentations with MS PowerPoint. Learning and using the internet (Internet Explorer), e-mail (Outlook Express), searching information (Google, Yahoo etc.) and international literature (electronic journals and scientific databases).

Suggested Reading
Tsouroplis, A., and K. Klimopoulos. Introduction to Informatics. New Technologies Publications.
Koilias, C., and S. Kalafoutis. Computer Use. New Technologies Publications.
Grauer, R. T., and M. Barber. Exploring Windows. Prentice- Hall.
Grauer, R. T., and M. Barber. Exploring Microsoft Word. Prentice- Hall.
Grauer, R. T., and M. Barber. Exploring Microsoft Excel. Prentice- Hall.

INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Course Objective
To teach general principles of food science and technology, global food needs, available food supply, types of food, nutritional value. Principles of technology, food processing and distribution methods.

Content Summary
Composition and nutritional value of food (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, salts, vitamins). Microbial activity (characteristics of microorganisms, effect of pH on microbial growth). Impact of microorganisms on food (desirable and undesirable transformations, toxins). Food safety – Hygiene (personal hygiene, hygiene of production plants, HACCP system). Enzymatic reactions (nature of enzymes, proteases, oxidases, lipases). Chemical reactions (oxidations, non-enzymatic browning). Thermal processing (preprocessing, vacuum application, D, Z, and Fo values). Food preservation in low temperatures (cooling, freezing). Food additives (antioxidants, preservatives, dyes). Qualitative and aesthetic evaluation of food (appearance, texture, taste, flavor).

Suggested Reading
Antonakos, I. Introduction to Food Processing. OEDV.
Potter and Hotchkiss. Food Science. 5th ed.
Labuza, Τ. Ρ., and J. W. Erdman, Jr. 1984. Food Science and Nutrition Health. West Publishing.
Ronsiavalli, L. J., and E. R. Veira. 1992. Elementary Food Science. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Course Objective
To deepen and expand the knowledge of high school inorganic chemistry so that students can comprehend those curriculum subjects that require a solid chemistry background.

Content Summary
Periodic table. Chemical bonds. Chemical reactions and chemical equations. Aqueous solutions. Reaction rate and chemical equilibrium. Ionic equilibria. Acids, bases, and salts. Salt hydrolysis. Buffering solutions. Solubility product. Colloidal dispersion systems. Redox reactions. Chemical thermodynamics. Coordination complexes. Special section (study of the properties and measurement methods of common elements with emphasis on those involved in the metabolism of plant and animal organisms).

Laboratory Exercises
Introduction – Safety rules – Laboratory instrumentation
Scales and weighing
Preparation of solutions – Dilution and mixing
Titration of a solution – Stoichiometry – Colloidal systems
Solubility
Density
Chemical kinetics – Measurement of reaction rate
Chemical equilibrium
pH – Indicators
Buffering solutions
Heterogeneous equilibrium – Solubility product
Redox
Electrochemistry
Qualitative analysis of anions and cations

Suggested Reading
1. Hadjiioannou, Th. P. 1990. Laboratory Exercises in Quantitative Analytical Chemistry. Athens.
2. Hadjiioannou, Th. P. 1977. Lessons in Analytical Chemistry. Athens.
3. Themelis, D., and G. Zacharioudakis. 1984. Analytical Chemistry – Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis. Thessaloniki.
4. Gergis, V., D. Zakopoulou, and G. Katsiyannis. 2001. Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry. First Grade of First TEE Cycle. Athens.
5. Sinanoglou, V. 2008. Supplementary Notes on the Theory of General Chemistry.

GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
Course Objective
- To acquaint students with the microbes that they are likely to encounter during their professional career, and to acquaint them with the biochemical and physiological activities through which microorganisms perform their task, whether beneficial or harmful.
- To provide students with experience in microbial techniques and methods, with special emphasis in microbial food analyses.
- To provide students with the background required to comprehend topics in microbiology, biotechnology and food hygiene.

Content Summary
- Elementary biochemistry, structure, and evolution of the microbial cell.
- Description of microbial categories based on morphological, cultivational, physiological and nutritional requirements.
- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, viruses: Morphology, reproduction, taxonomy.
- Microbial nutrition (biochemistry and metabolism of microorganisms, microbiological nutrient substrates)
- Microbial growth and kinetics.
- Microbial culture.
- Control of microbial growth – Influence of physicochemical factors on microbial growth.
- Genetics of microorganisms: Mutations, genetic recombination, viral genetics.
- Microorganisms and environment: Biogeochemical cycles of the elements.
- Microorganisms of importance in microbiology and food technology (molds, yeasts, bacteria, viruses).
- Microbes and diseases: Interactions between microbes and macroorganisms, basic principles of immunology, clinical microbiology and immunology.
- Microbial diseases: Epidemiology, microbial diseases that spread from human to human, from animals, arthropods, soil, water, and food.
- Industrial microbiology – biocatalysis.
- Genetic engineering and biotechnology.

Laboratory Exercises
- Operation of microbiology laboratory equipment: Microscope, furnaces, colony counters, GasPak, homogenizers.
- Study of bacterial morphology: Preparation of wet mount slides and smears for staining. Execution of staining: Simple stain, negative stain, Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen, endospore and capsule stain.
- Nutrient substrates: Composition, preparation, utilization and grafting.
- Bacterial isolation: General separation techniques, special isolation techniques.
- Bacterial identification: Morphological and cultivational characteristics, metabolic properties (temperature, oxygen, catalase assays, oxidase assays, etc.)
- Sugar metabolism: Hugh-Liefson assay, M.R.-V.P.
- Protein metabolism: Casein and gelatin hydrolysis, hemolytic activity.
- Amino acid metabolism: Lysine decarboxylation, phenylalanine deamination, hydrogen sulfate production, etc.
- Utilization of organic acids.
- Protozoa (environmental, parasitic).
- Molds: Culture, morphological characteristics, identification.
- Yeasts: Culture, morphological and phyletic characteristics, identification.
- Bacteria: Isolation, culture, enrichment, preservation.
- Biochemical and immunological assays for identification of microorganisms.
- Control of the activity of physical and chemical antimicrobial factors.
- Bacterial genetics.

Suggested Reading
Brock. 2007. Biology of Microorganisms. Vol. I & II. Madigan, Martinko and Parker.
Kalkani-Bousiakou. 2007. General Microbiology. 3rd ed. Parikos & Co.
Karagouni-Kyrtsou. 1999. Microbiology. Stamoulis Publications.
Nester, Anderson & Roberts. 2011. Microbiology: A Human Perspective. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill.
Tortora, G.J., R. B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case. 2012. Microbiology: An Introduction. 11th ed. Barnes & Noble.
Cappuccino and Sherman. 2008. Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. 8th ed. Benjamin / Cummings.
Pommerville. 2010. Alcamo’s Laboratory Fundamentals of Microbiology. 9th ed. Jones & Bartlett.

MATHEMATICAL APPLICATIONS IN FOOD TECHNOLOGY

Course Objective
To provide the basis so that students can solve the mathematical problems that they will encounter in various other curriculum subjects. The course aims to develop critical thinking for analyzing problems and developing algorithms to their solution, to synthesize clues that derive from problem parameters and to apply their mathematical knowledge in order to produce the most suitable mathematical solution in each case.

Content Summary
Review of basic mathematical techniques
Applications of proportions in a biology laboratory
Description of relationships via equations and graphs
Introduction to descriptive statistics
Applications in biotechnology
Detailed discourse of the theory and practice that govern the basic protocols in daily use in the laboratories of molecular biology, biochemistry, biomedicine, and biotechnology. All routine laboratory tasks are presented in detail, step-by-step, from preparing solutions and measuring pH to performing specialized reactions such as Bradford and PCR.

Suggested Reading
Mendelson, E., and F. Ayres, Jr. 1990. Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Differential and Integral Calculus. Schaum's Outlines. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Seidman, L. A. 2007. Basic Laboratory Calculations for Biotechnology. Benjamin Cummings.
Thomas, G. B., R. L. Finney, M. D. Weir, and F. R. Giordano. 2000. Thomas' Calculus. Addison-Wesley.

PHYSICS

Course Objective
To deepen and expand the knowledge of high school physics so that students can comprehend those curriculum subjects that require a good understanding of physics concepts, relationships and phenomena, such as Food Processing and Engineering.

Content Summary
International System of Units. Force. Work, power, energy, forms of energy, conversion of solar energy. Fluid mechanics (fluid statics, fluid dynamics). Molecular forces. Surface phenomena. Cohesion and adhesion forces. Capillary phenomenon. Porous materials. Fluid transport in porous materials. Osmosis. Temperature (temperature as energy, thermal properties of matter, conduction and transport, thermal radiation). Electricity. Kirchoff’s laws. Joule’s law. Direct and alternating current. Electrical energy transport. Electrical circuit. Instrumentation for measurement of electrical quantities. Optics (light waves, reflection, refraction, and diffraction of light, lenses, polarization of light, light sources and electromagnetic spectrum).

Laboratory Exercises
Elements of error theory: Bias, random error, statistics of random error, combined error. Data distributions. Graphs: Plotting, slope, examples, linear transformations of non-linear plots. Measurement of length and radius of curved surfaces. Measurement of acceleration of gravity with a simple pendulum. Calculation of a spring constant. Monitoring transient phenomena – capacitor loading.
1. Calculation of the density of solids 2. Friction 3. Linear motion under acceleration (Atwood setup) 4. Study of simple pendulum – calculation of g 5. Oscillations of parallel flat springs and spiral spring 6. Buoyancy 7. Measurement of liquid density with Mohr’s scale 8. Viscosity coefficient of fluids 9. Surface tension 10. Calculation of mechanical equivalent of temperature 11. Temperature coefficient of linear expansion 12. Boyle-Mariotte’s law of gases 13. Calculation of thermal capacity of solids 14. Electrical conductivity – Ohm’s law 15. Measurement of resistance with a Wheatstone bridge 16. Connection of electrical sources – measurement of electromotive force 17. Oscillograph. Data processing on a computer: Least squares method, correlation coefficient, numerical integration, algorithm description – applications, program lists.

Suggested Reading
1. Serway, R. A. 1996. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Vol Ι.
2. Ηalliday, Resnick and Walker. 1992. Fundamentals of Physics. 5 ed.
3. Hewitt, P. G. 2002. Conceptual Physics.