Fifth Semester

CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE OF FOOD AND ORGANIC PRODUCTS

Course Objective
Instruction in planning, application, maintenance and upgrade of food safety systems that aim to create safe products for the consumer, depending on intended use. Specifically, for organic food, the course will focus on special requirements so that systems of control and quality assurance of organic food comply with legislative and regulatory requirements for food safety.

Content Summary
1. Quality terminology: Quality, control and quality assurance, quality management, quality system.
2. Quality control: Quality control targets, stages of quality control, methods of quality control, organization of quality control, quality characteristics of food, sensory characteristics, quality control of food texture with objective methods, correlation of results from subjective and objective methods.
3. Hazard Analysis – Critical Control Point (HACCP – ISO 22000): Introduction, principles, methodology, application examples.
4. Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Hygiene Practices (GMP - GHP): Introduction to GMP - GHP system, recommended international code of practice – general food hygiene principles of Codex Alimentarius, food hygiene according to Directive 93/43/EEC, application examples of the GMP - GHP system.
5. Quality management according to ISO 9000: Standards analysis, application examples, inspection of quality systems.
6. Total Quality Management (TQM): Introduction, Deming’s philosophy, Juran’s philosophy, Crosby’s philosophy, Taguchi’s philosophy, statistical process control (SPC), various techniques used in total quality management, quality cost.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Sensory control and statistical analysis of results: Pair wise comparison test, triangle test and duo-trio test, tetrahedron test, sorting test, multiple comparison test, dilution and threshold tests, grading tests, quantitative description tests. Taste profile analysis and evaluation via multiple axes diagrams. Likeability tests.
2. Quality control with instrumentation methods: Evaluation of food color. Evaluation of food texture.
3. Quality assurance and management systems (case studies): HACCP – ISO 22000. ISO 9001.

Suggested Reading
Amvrosiadis, I. 2005. Application and Control of HACCP System. Synchroni Pedia Publications.
Arvanitoyannis, I., D. Sandrou, and L. Kourtis. 2001. Food Safety. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki.
Tsaknis, I. 2009. Food Quality Assurance. Papasotiriou Publications, Athens.

FOOD PROCESSING II

Course Objective
To deepen the knowledge of methods related to food processing and preservation.

Content Summary
Physical properties of food, food dehydration, food condensation, various processing methods (extrusion, frying, high pressure, fermentation), preservation with addition of substances (salt, sugars, chemical preservation), recent developments in processing methods, technology of obstacles.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Determination of water activity and sorption isotherms
2. Study of food dehydration
3. Study of food condensation
4. Study of food extrusion
5. Study of food frying
6. Study of food fermentation
7. Use of chemical preservatives
8. Study of food preservation with salt and sugars

Suggested Reading
Kyranas, E. 2011. Food, Composition, Origin, Spoilage, Processing and Packaging.
Lambropoulos, A., and S. Anestis. 2012. Food Processing.
Lazos, E. 2010. Food Processing. Vol. II.

POST-HARVEST PHYSIOLOGY

Course Objective
Principles of post-harvest technology of horticultural crops, causes of post-harvest losses and the magnitude of the problem. The morphological and physiological characteristics of horticultural produce in relation to post-harvest metabolic changes. Horticultural produce quality. Storage of leafy vegetables, immature fruits and salad vegetables. Storage and quality of vegetable fruits. Storage of underground organs. Chilling injuries and cold storage.

Content Summary
1. Anatomical structure of fruits. Physiological changes during fruit maturation under natural conditions. Quality in relation to pre-harvest factors.
2. The application of growth regulators in relation to the mechanical harvest of fruits. Sorting - standardization - packaging of fruits.
3. Elements of the technique of fruit preservation. Physiological anomalies of fruits during cold storage.
4. Fruit transport. Regulations that control the marketing of fruits.
5. Introduction to post-harvest physiology and technology of horticultural crops and flowers. Post-harvest losses.
6. The role of respiration, transpiration and ethylene biosynthesis in the post-harvest treatment of produce and the magnitude of losses.
7. The concept of quality and the criteria for evaluating quality characteristics. Criteria of harvest maturity of horticultural crops and flowers. Harvest.
8. Organization and operation of packaging plants. The packaging process and materials. Standardization of agricultural products. Quality control. Techniques and conditions of pre-chilling.
9. Basic principles of operation and control of chilling chambers. Techniques and conditions of chilling by type of product.
10. Conditions and problems during transport of horticultural crops and flowers to markets, domestic and abroad.
11. Incompatibility during preservation and transport. Means of transport.
12. Post-harvest physiological anomalies and diseases of horticultural crops and flowers.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Evaluation and application of methods and techniques for checking harvest maturity and quality of fruits and vegetables.
2. Proper post-harvest treatment during sorting, packaging, preservation and transport of agricultural products.
3. Post-harvest treatments for minimizing post-harvest losses of agricultural products, from harvest to consumption.
4. Practical application of criteria for harvest maturity and evaluation of quality characteristics.
5. Visit to orchard-vegetable garden in order to determine harvest maturity and harvest date of the produce.
6. Study of respiratory activity and transpiration intensity of horticultural produce.
7. Study of the influence of storage conditions on preserving the quality of horticultural crops and flowers.
8. Study of the impact of ethylene in the post-harvest longevity of horticultural produce.
9. Measurement of vitamin concentration in horticultural produce.
10. Study of the conditions of post-harvest ripening in fruits.
11. The physiology of horticultural crop development and maturation.
12. Drafting a panel to evaluate the quality of fruits and vegetables.
13. Visit to modern storage areas for horticultural produce.

Suggested Reading
Burg, S., P. (2004). Postharvest physiology and hypobaric storage of fresh produce. CABI Publishing, U.K.
Do Nascimento Nunes, M., C. (2008). Color atlas of postharvest quality of fruits and vegetables. Iowa State University Press, USA.
Florkowski, W., J., Prussia, S., A., Shewfelt, R., L. & B. Brueckner (Eds.) (2009). Postharvest handling. A systems approach. Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc., Amsterdam.
Karaoulanis, G., D. (2009). Biology and biotechnology of horticultural produce after harvest. Stamoulis Publications, Athens.
Bourbos, Ε. (2007). Ozone as control of plant diseases. DIO, Athens.
Sfakiotakis, Ε. (2004). Post-harvest physiology and technology. Manousakis Publications, Thessaloniki.
Wills, R., B., H. (1990). Postharvest. An introduction to the physiology and handling of fruits and vegetables. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, USA.
Wills, R., B., H. (1998). Postharvest. CABI Publishing, U.K.

TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF WINE AND DISTILLATES


Course Objective
To comprehend the technology of making wine and various distillates and to employ the analytical methods that are used during the production process and quality control.

Content Summary
Maturation and composition of grapes, white vinification, red vinification, production of rose wines, sparkling wines, production of sweet wines, special vinification processes. Wine microbiology: Yeasts in must and wine, lactic bacteria, acetic bacteria. Chemical composition of must and wine: Aroma compounds, taste compounds, phenolic compounds. Changes and stabilization of wine: chemical and biological changes in grapes after harvest, oxidation and reduction phenomena in wine, the use of sulfurous anhydride in wine preservation, colloidal constituents of wine, hazing and precipitation of various compounds in wine, clarification processes, acceptable enological practices and processes. Bottling. Winery hygiene. Technology and quality control of distillates (ouzo, brandy, cognac, vodka, whisky, rum, liqueur).

Laboratory Exercises
1. Measurement of alcohol content with alcohol meter and hydrometer (use of tables).
2. Determination of sugar content in must.
3. Determination of acidity and pH in must.
4. Determination of pH, total and volatile acidity in wine.
5. Determination of ash in wine.
6. Determination of sulfurous anhydride (free and total sulfite).
7. Modern chromatography methods for analyzing wine and distillates.
8. Enzymatic changes by enzyme activity. Importance of enzyme use in vinification.
9. Use of select yeasts for wine production.
10. Alcoholic fermentation – physical and chemical factors that affect yeast development – progress of alcoholic fermentation.
11. Problems with incomplete fermentation and corrective approaches.

Suggested Reading
Soufleros, E. 2000. Wine and Distillates.
Soufleros, E. 2009. Enology, Science and Know-How.
Tsakiris, A. 2008. Enology, from Grape to Wine.
Tzitzi, M. and P. Kyparissiou. 2008. Elements of Enology.

ADDITIVES AND SWEETENERS

Course Objective
To provide the necessary knowledge related to food additives and natural and artificial sweeteners.

Content Summary
Additives: Vitamins, amino acids, minerals, flavoring agents, taste and smell enhancers, sugar substitutes, sweeteners, food dyes, acids, bases, antimicrobial agents, antioxidants, complexing agents (chelates), surfactants, fat substitutes, thickeners, gelling agents, stabilizers, humectants, anti-caking agents, bleaching agents, clarifying agents, propellants, and packaging gases.

Sweeteners: Structural requirements, relationship between structure and sweetness, synergy, saccharine, cyclamates, monellin, thaumatines, curculin and miraculin, stevioside, Gymnema Silvestre extract, osladin, phyllodulcin, glycyrrhizin, nitroanillines, dihydrochalcone, ureas and guanidines, oximes, oxethazaine dioxides, dipeptide esters and amides, hernandulcin, halodeoxy sugars.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Detection of flour improvers.
2. Determination of sodium chloride in tomato juice.
3. Determination of sulfurous anhydrite in wine.
4. Determination of sodium benzoate in fruit juices.
5. Chromatographic determination of chemical food additives.
6. Chromatographic determination of food sweeteners.

Suggested Reading
Belitz, H.-D., W. Grosch, and P. Schieberle. 2011. Food Chemistry. 4th ed.
Kyranas, E. 2011. Food Additives and the Law.
Lambropoulos, A. and S. Anestis. 2008. Sweeteners.

TECHNOLOGY AND QUALITY OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

Course Objective
The analysis of processing methods for fruits and vegetables and techniques for quality control of raw materials and end products.

Content Summary
Production – morphology – taxonomy of fruits and vegetables, preservation of produce – environmental and biological factors that affect post-harvest preservation of fruits and vegetables, chemical composition – relationship of constituents to nutritional value, fruits suitable for processing, factors that affect fruits, chilling methods for fruits and vegetables, the freezing process and its effect on plant tissue, technology of tomato processing, technology of vegetable processing, technology of fruit processing, technology of fruit juice, quality control of raw materials and end products, products with addition of sugar, product spoilage.

Laboratory Exercises
1. Inspection and processing of tomato paste.
2. Peeling – Scalding.
3. Fruit and vegetable content of acids, dissolved solids and vitamin C.
4. Measurement of acidity in grape must.
5. Measurement of orange color.
6. Enzymatic browning and discoloration of bananas.
7. Inspection of canned peaches.
8. Jellification. Marmalade preparation. Qualitative evaluation of jellies and marmalades.
9. Qualitative evaluation of fruit juice.
10. Effect of the speed of freezing on the qualitative characteristics of fruits and vegetables.
11. Quality control of canned fruits – vegetables.
12. Methods of chilling and freezing fruits and vegetables – quality control.
12. Fruit dehydration.

Suggested Reading
Anagnostopoulou A. and A. Talelli. 2008. Technology and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables.
Arvanitoyannis, I. S., T. H. Varzakas, and K. Jifa. 2008. Quality Control of Food.
Karaoulanis, D. G. Technology of Fruit and Vegetable Processing.